Georgia Senate Judiciary Subcommittee (Full Jovan Testimony Added)

THIS GUY — Like A Boss!

GATEWAY PUNDIT:

Inventor Jovan Hutton Pulitzer was in front of the Georgia Senate today and he totally destroyed Georgia’s 2020 election results.

Jovan Pulitzer on Wednesday told Georgia lawmakers he hacked into Dominion voting systems at a Georgia polling place.

Pulitzer confirmed that the Georgia runoff IS connected to the internet.

He established a two-way communication from a polling pad in a voting center.

“At this very moment at a polling location in the county, not only do we have access through the devices to the poll pad–the system, but WE ARE IN,” Pulitzer said.

He continued, “And it’s not supposed to have WiFi and that’s not supposed to be able to happen so we’ve documented now it’s communicating two ways in real time, meaning it’s receiving data and sending data — should never happen, shouldn’t be WiFi, we’ve now documented it in real time.

FULL TESTIMONY ADDED

What this shows is that the CEO of Dominion lied, and NTD’S report is correct:

Jovan Pulitzer is also the guy that DAVID HARRIS JR. notes got the entire Georgia Senate Judiciary Subcommittee to unanimously pass a motion to audit Fulton County’s absentee ballots using his method (I have been reading on Twitter they have to be in session for it to go anywhere… GRRRR):

I would love to see it but the Democrat’s puppets running the elections will probably find a way to stop it. But the plan is to let famous inventor, Jovan Pulitzer.

Pulitzer who has volunteered to do a count in Fulton County for free has pointed out that the ballot forms for Republicans are different in red counties and blue counties.

He found that the code for the ballots in red counties is right and will tally correctly but in blue counties, they use a different code that allows the machines to kick the vote where it can be changed from Trump to Biden. Pulitzer says he can prove fraud without examining the machines or the software. He just needs the votes themselves.


Pulitzer says it will only take him two hours to examine 500,000 votes. The plan is quick and cheap two things I always love. But those who perpetrated or abetted the fraud won’t like it and will try to subvert it or run the clock out if they can.

[….]

Mr. Pulitzer said he has “no regard for the smoke and mirrors of how the machines work.” – IT’S ALL ABOUT THE PAPER BALLOTS.

“I don’t care about the machine. I don’t even care about the code that was written in the machine. What I care about is that physical artifact [ballot] and that physical artifact has material differences district to district that should not be there.”

I hope he gets access!

Georgia Testimony by Two Data Scientists (Pennsylvania Added)

Georgia election data indicates at least 30,000 votes were removed from President Donald Trump and another 12,173 votes were switched to Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden, data scientists testified on Dec. 30 during a state Senate hearing.

Pennsylvania election data shows that over 423,000 votes were removed from President Donald Trump during the November election, data scientists say. According to an analysis by the Data Integrity Group, obtained exclusively by The Epoch Times, votes for Trump—from both Election Day and mail-in ballots—were removed from the totals in at least 15 counties. Time-series election data shows Trump’s votes decrementing in various counties at numerous time points instead of increasing as would be expected under normal circumstances. The group said that Election Day vote removals happened during the vote tabulation process in at least 15 counties, including Lehigh County, Chester County, Allegheny County, Armstrong County, Westmoreland County, Northhampton County, Delaware County, Montgomery County, Lackawanna County, Dauphin County, Pike County, Carbon County, Washington County, Erie County, and Luzerne County.

Counties w/Dominion Machines Tilted Biden by 5.6%

RumbleAn unbiased by-county analysis of 2020 general election results of over 3000 U.S. counties shows large-scale skewing of election results in favor of Joe Biden in counties using Dominion Voting Systems.

Analysis conducted by DataScience and released through BASEDmedia constructed a statistical model to predict relative performance for either candidate based upon U.S. Census county data to 90% accuracy.

This analysis revealed that counties that used Dominion and Hart InterCivic ballot counting devices and software consistently gave a 5% vote advantage to candidate Joe Biden over President Trump. This advantage was observed regardless of the county’s majority political party affiliation nor urban, suburban, or rural area demographics.

For further information, the full report is available online here: Evidence of Potential Fraud in Counties Using Dominion Voting Machines (PDF)

John Eastman’s Thoughts On 2020 Election Fraud

RumbleLarry Elder had Dr. John Eastman on his show to discuss the legal challenges of the Trump team and where they are today. I actually do not include the beginning of the interview — rather, I wanted to isolate the discussion of the voter fraud and the recent forensic look at one counties Dominion machines.

  • “The allowable election error rate established by the Federal Election Commission guidelines is of 1 in 250,000 ballots (.0008%). We observed an error rate of 68.05%. This demonstrated a significant and fatal error in security and election integrity,” the report states. “The results of the Antrim County 2020 election are not certifiable. This is a result of machine and/or software error, not human error.” (GATESTONE)
  • Here’s Fulton County’s election director admitting to adjudicating 94% of his county’s ballots. Is anyone going to ask him why 94% of the ballots registered an error? Doesn’t that seem too high? (PJ-MEDIA |Georgia Elections Director Casually Admits That 94% Of 113,000 Ballots Needed Adjudication)

Ballot Adjudication & John Solomon (Various Topics)

I included the excerpt of Larry O’Connor discussing just how many ballots were adjudicated of the absentee ballots — at the time of the audio 113,130 ballots were counted, and 106,000 were adjudicated. The percentage of guessing voter intent was 93.6% – wow. Here is the video:

In other words, a voter review panel interprets voter intent… at a 94% rate? This is illegal, and what’s worse, is that the re is no way to check these changes.

Also, watch Dr. Coomer explain how easy it is to change votes using Dominion systems “adjudication” part:

The WASHINGTON TIMES notes that in

The report authors said they “observed an error rate of 68.05%” with ballot counts — a “significant and fatal error in security and election integrity” that far surpasses the “allowable election error rate” of 0.0008%, or one-in-250,000 ballots, that’s been established by the Federal Election Commission.

What’s interesting, too, is that state and county officials didn’t want to release information on Antrim County’s voting equipment for analysts’ review.

A judge had to order its release.

From the Detroit Free Press: “Judge Kevin Elsenheimer of the 13th Circuit Court had ordered ‘forensic imaging’ of the Dominion Voting Systems voting tabulators and related software after Antrim County resident William Bailey filed a lawsuit that challenged the integrity of the election equipment, citing errors in how the county initially reported its unofficial results.”

Come on, now. Why the need to go to court to obtain access to data and information that should already be transparent and public?

EPOCH TIMES lays on the Michigan Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson by noting attorney Matthew DePerno saying she lied:

An attorney in a Michigan election case on Friday said that an infamous vote flip happened because of a computer program, not human error.

“Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson said it happened by human error. We discovered that’s not true, that’s a lie. It didn’t happen by human error. It happened by a computer program called Dominion Voting System[s],” Matthew DePerno said on Newsmax.

DePerno is representing plaintiff William Bailey in a lawsuit against Antrim County. Bailey noted that the county initially reported Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden winning the county by more than 2,000 votes over President Donald Trump, but later changed the results to show Trump received nearly 4,000 more votes than Biden.

Officials claimed what happened was due to a human error, after initially suggesting it was in part because of a software issue.

DePerno said that through the lawsuit, his team was able to get access to the Dominion Voting Systems program. They went earlier this month and retrieved 16 thumb drives and 16 data cards, as well as the forensic image of the actual tabulation machine in the Antrim County clerk office.

“My team has been running analysis through that forensic image since Sunday,” he said…..

THE GELLER REPORT also notes that prior to the judges order going through, that “Michigan Attorney General Dana Nessel and Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson [tried] to block the results of a forensic audit of Dominion machines in Antrim County, where thousands of votes for President Trump were flipped to Joe Biden.”

Hmmm, I wonder why? [ / sarcasm ]


Then John Solomon comes on the show (at the 3:27 mark) to discuss a Biden tainted foreign policy as well as other stories.

TUCKER

Dr. Eric Coomer – How To Change Votes (UPDATED)

IN CASE YOU DON’T KNOW: Dr. Coomer, for those that do not know, is on the Board of Dominion and a lead engineer there. He is also a radical Antifa guy who posts “ACAB” and other anti-police slurs on his social media. And when asked by a friend about Trump, Dr. Coomer said: don’t worry, he won’t win, I’ve taken care of that. (100% FED-UP)

See my YT UPLOAD which included Dr. Coomer saying they do not do updates unless a full reauthorization happens… yet…

  • A software update made 12-days before voting began in Georgia was not adequately tested for security issues nor was it recertified by the U.S. Election Assistance Commission. Why? Because infamous Dominion Voting Systems executive Eric Coomer claimed the change was “minor” and did not require recertification. (NOQ REPORT)

In this video, Eric Coomer, the Dominion Exec who allegedly told an Antifa member on a conference call that Trump wouldn’t win, and he would make F—In Sure Of That, is explaining at a conference in Chicago in 2017 that “adjudication teams” are able to make alterations in the Dominion system, if they feel there was an issue with the voter’s intent. And he explains how it’s done. (Also watch on TWITTER)

Are Voting Machines Vulnerable To Hacking/Fraud

(As an aside, I “hear” CNN and other networks and Democrats mention that Republicans and Donald Trump are undermining Democracy. In fact, 4-years of the Democrat Presidential candidate saying Trump is an illegitimate President and Democrats entire lie about Russian Collusion based on a lie about Trump’s involvement with Russia based on a knowable fake dossier which was the brainchild of Hillary. Democrats Chickens Are Coming Home To Roost!)

This was an excellent audio by Larry Elder… I add to the resources both in the audio as well as below:

MORE RESOURCES

  • (NEW YORK TIMES) How I Hacked an Election | NYT – Opinion;
  • (PBS NEWS HOUR) PBS Special on Dominion Voting Systems in Georgia 2020 – October 26, 2020;
  • (SYMANTIC) I Bought a Voting Machine Online … Then Hacked It;
  • (FUSION) A Hacker Shows Us How Easy it is To Manipulate Voting Machines;
  • (CNN BUSINESS) We Watched Hackers Break Into Voting Machines;
  • (NBC) ‘Online and vulnerable’: Experts find nearly three dozen U.S. voting systems connected to internet
  • (CEO SMARTMATIC) Election Company: Venezuela Result was Tampered;

[SIDE NOTE: for last video… election auditors were kept out in many swing state districts that had large Biden “vote dumps”].

Pennsylvania – The Banana Republic

The Pennsylvania State Flag

The Pennsylvania Supreme Court just confirmed what many have thought was a myth. Here is an example from a video upload of mine (WATCH THE FIRST 25-SECONDS…. that’s not too much to ask is it?):

….Observers were forced to stand 30 to 100 feet away from the ballot counting and resorted to using binoculars. NEWSLA rightly calls PA a Banana Republic:

President Trump was up by nearly 700,000 votes on election night in Pennsylvania when all of a sudden vote counting came to a halt.

Pennsylvania, Michigan, Wisconsin, North Carolina, Arizona and Georgia stopped counting ballots on election night.

This is when crooked officials in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh got to work stealing the election for Joe Biden.

Millions of ballots appeared within a few days and hundreds of thousands of ballots were counted for Joe Biden as officials blocked GOP poll observers from having access to the vote counting centers.

GOP poll observers and lawyers for President Trump’s campaign were blocked from observing the process despite a court order from an appellate judge.

According to the court order, GOP observers must be allowed within 6 feet of the ballot counting.

Observers were forced to stand 30 to 100 feet away from the ballot counting and resorted to using binoculars.

The Pennsylvania Supreme Court on Tuesday said all the state law requires is observers be allowed “‘in the room’ where ballots are counted. The law does not set a minimum distance between them and the counting tables…The legislature didn’t provide one, and the court can’t, either.”

ACE OF SPADES ARTICLE DUMP

THE 2020 DEMOCRAT ELECTION HEIST


MICHIGAN:

PENNSYLVANIA:

GEORGIA:

NEVADA:

WISCONSIN:


“Trump Team’s Evidence Will ‘Overturn’ Multiple States”

UPDATE

(100% FED-UP) Sidney Powell has been such a fearless warrior during the investigation into the 2020 election. She has been unafraid to expose corruption. America could use more patriots like Powell to help expose the lack of election integrity.

Powell reportedly told Mark Levin tonight that even Trump administration officials have been trying to stop her effort to expose the fraud in this year’s election. The Deep State runs deep in DC.

Sidney Powell joined Lou Dobbs tonight and read statements from the Smartmatic whistleblower:

I want this to be true!

Via RIGHT SCOOP

PBS Special On Voting Machines (Oct 26, 2020)

(Larry Elder quotes PBS’s special below this video) Oh no… A University of Michigan Professor of Computer Science & Engineering is not confident in the Georgia voting system at all. They just made a last minute software change right before the election. Can anyone say Voter Fraud?

Protecting the American voting process from outside interference is a top priority this election season. But public and political opinion are divided over the best voting systems to prevent tampering. Miles O’Brien takes a look at the latest technology being used in Georgia — and whether it provides a stronger defense against meddling than the traditional paper ballot.

Some Sober Articles Regarding ‘Dominion Software’ (UPDATE ADDED)

UPDATE REGARDING DR. COOMER’S ANTIFA/ANTI-
POLICE LOVE AFFAIR AT BOTTOM OF POST

There are a lot, and I mean A LOT, of information floating around the WWW about the software/voting machines. Much of it conjecturesome of it I wish is reality! Nonetheless, it is a topic that will surely infect this and future elections. By “infect” I mean having to be dealt with or a future topic of fair elections. First however, this is not just a “GOP Conspiracy” cooked up the last month… there have been bipartisan worry about this for years. PJ-MEDIA notes this:

last year, three Democrat senators, including former presidential candidates Elizabeth Warren (Mass.) and Amy Klobuchar (Minn.), sounded the alarm about the vulnerabilities of voting machines.

In a December 6, 2019, letter, Warren, Klobuchar, Sen. Ron Wyden (D-Ore.), and Rep. Mark Pocan (D-Wisc.), issued a formal complaint about these three companies, which they said “threaten the integrity of our elections.”

Here is a key paragraph from the letter, which is still available via Senator Warren’s Senate website.

In 2018 alone “voters in South Carolina [were] reporting machines that switched their votes after they’d inputted them, scanners [were] rejecting paper ballots in Missouri, and busted machines [were] causing long lines in Indiana.”14 In addition, researchers recently uncovered previously undisclosed vulnerabilities in “nearly three dozen backend election systems in 10 states.”15 And, just this year, after the Democratic candidate’s electronic tally showed he received an improbable 164 votes out of 55,000 cast in a Pennsylvania state judicial election in 2019, the county’s Republican Chairwoman said,”[n]othing went right on Election Day. Everything went wrong. That’s a problem.”16 These problems threaten the integrity of our elections and demonstrate the importance of election systems that are strong, durable, and not vulnerable to attack.

This may not prove Trump’s claim of votes being switched, but it proves that these allegations of problems began long before he was saying they were a problem.

(More can be seen about the above issue at JUST THE NEWS)

That last sentence is important. “This may not prove Trump’s claim of votes being switched, but it proves that these allegations of problems began long before he was saying they were a problem.” And the system was rejected twice by Texas and has been known to have issues.

I will post these next few articles in the time-frame I read them, first read to last. I posted these on my Facebook Page as they seemed sober enough to post (whether you agree or not with them, they are not “wild eyes” in the “Alex Jones” sense.

The first was a good intro article to the issue by RED STATE. In it they discuss the first known issue “in Antrim County in Michigan when according to a technical ‘glitch,’ 6000 votes that were supposed to go to President Donald Trump were given to Joe Biden in the official totals.” RS continues with the intro and issues,

The Michigan Secretary of State Jocelyn Benson, a Democrat, claimed that “the clerk accidentally did not update the software used to collect voting machine data and report unofficial results.”

So here’s the question I have with that: how does not “updating” the software result in the transposition of the votes to your opponent? And again, if it did, does that not suggest there is a problem in the function or design of what they have in place if this can occur?

As my colleague Jennifer Van Laar reported this is not only a question for the 47 counties in Michigan, but everywhere this system has been employed which interestingly, seems to be in the contested areas including Nevada, Arizona, Pennsylvania and Georgia. She also reported about how there have been prior problems with this system and that there was also a problem in Georgia on Tuesday, also related to an “update” causing a “glitch.”

From POLITICO:

A technology glitch that halted voting in two Georgia counties on Tuesday morning was caused by a vendor uploading an update to their election machines the night before, a county election supervisor said.

Voters were unable to cast machine ballots for a couple of hours in Morgan and Spalding counties after the electronic devices crashed, state officials said.

The companies “uploaded something last night, which is not normal, and it caused a glitch,” said Marcia Ridley, elections supervisor at Spalding County Board of Election.

Notice the similar language in both Michigan and Georgia related to uploading an update, although one crashed when it was uploaded and the other supposedly caused the issue when it wasn’t uploaded.

SO HOW MANY PLACES HAD THIS “UPDATE?”….

([EMPHASIS ADDED] The rest of the article is worth reading as well as this RED-STATE article)

Another article I thought was worthy is an article by by Sharon Meroni in THE POST & EMAIL. The article dates from September 1st, 2016, and catalogs some [in my mind] critical vote security issues. (Again, the entire article is worth while):

On Friday, August 26th, during a meeting at the Illinois State Board of Elections, the Vice President of Engineering for Dominion Voting, Dr. Eric Coomer*, was asked if it was possible to bypass election systems software and go directly to the data tables that manage systems running elections in Illinois. His response was, “Yes, if they have access.”

Bypassing the election systems software means whoever has access can potentially manipulate the vote without many risks of detection. So the question needs to be asked, who has access to these data tables?

We asked Dr. Coomer that question. Dr. Coomer replied, ‘Vendors, election officials, and others who need to be granted access.’

This is explosive information. Dr. Coomer’s statement is an admission that various vendors, election officials, and others have access to the back end data tables that permit bypassing the operating system’s configuration. It is notable that when someone accesses these systems from a data table, their actions are not logged by the system; thereby making detection much more problematic. This contradicts Dr. Coomer’s assurances that the system is secure.

[….]

VIDEO BREAK

[….]

And that is not all! The Board asked Dr. Coomer if he had any comments [above video]. In direct response to the Illinois State Board, Dr. Coomer made the following statement:

“We are constantly assessing different threat models against all of our systems we have fielded across the US and internationally as well. Due to the certification environment that we are in, no we are not allowed to do routine updates without having to go through re-certification efforts, but we do routinely give guidance on how to best secure systems and also going back again, to the final mitigation against all of this is a robust auditing canvasing process which all of our jurisdictions have implemented.”

Dr. Coomer failed to mention that Illinois does not have any auditing procedure for absentee mail-in ballots. In 2014, mail-in paper balloting was 8% of the vote. Across Illinois, many election jurisdictions are working to increase this percentage! Illinois does not require any justification when audits show a vote discrepancy. They simply correct the total votes that are reported to the new totals found in the audit. Further, it is not a blind audit. Auditors know what vote totals were reported before they begin the post-election re-count. So much for Coomer’s robust auditing process

Dr. Coomer’s statement brings to light a very serious issue all voters should understand. Voting systems must be re-certified each time they make changes to the hardware or software. Recertification is an expensive and time consuming process. What Dr. Coomer told the Board is that Dominion Voting does not go back for recertification of software when threats to their code are discovered. Rather, they rely on post-election audits and providing advice to election jurisdictions about security. I have reviewed all of the recertification documents produced by Dominion, and I do not recall any software adjustments for security purposes.

This is the reality of the security of your vote. Software systems that count and record the vote across Illinois and throughout the USA are not updated to address security problems, and even if they were, the software can be completely bypassed by going to the data tables that drive the systems.

I am not an expert on how other states audit the vote after an election. I do know that in Illinois, at least 8% of the vote never see any post-election audit. At least that amount of the vote is vulnerable to be manipulated without much chance for detection….

In yet a more recent article discussing the Georgia recount, REAL CLEAR INVESTIGATIONS references the possibility of the vote in Georgia being changed by the Dominion software. In their article entitled, “Pro-Biden Bug Also Suspected in Georgia’s Vote-Counting Software,” they cover this issue as well as other ballot tabulation issues:

A curious thing happened as Fulton County, Ga., election officials counted mail-in ballots at Atlanta’s State Farm Arena in the days after the election. In the early hours of Nov. 5, a surge of some 20,000 mail-in votes suddenly appeared for Joe Biden, while approximately 1,000 votes for President Trump mysteriously disappeared from his own totals in the critical swing state, where Biden holds a razor-thin lead.

A poll watcher noticed the suspicious shift in votes while monitoring the interim election results on the Georgia secretary of state website.

“I concluded from looking at these results that this was an irregularity, since there was no obvious reason for President Trump’s totals to have decreased while former Vice President Biden’s totals increased dramatically,” Voter GA co-founder Garland Favorito swore in an affidavit he filed this week with the secretary of state’s office.

Favorito suspects a variety of factors, including that votes were “artificially inflated” for Biden while using the same Dominion Voting system used by Antrim County, Mich., which erroneously transferred 6,000 votes from Trump to Biden. Last year, Georgia contracted with Dominion to automate vote tabulations in all 159 of its counties.

“The software appears to have thrown votes from Trump to Biden here too,” he said in a RealClearInvestigations interview. “Or Biden ballots were manufactured.”

The large disparity of gains between the two candidates “was something I had never witnessed before in my years of election monitoring,” said Favorito, a career IT professional who has been a leading advocate for election integrity in the state over the past two decades. He says he is not a Republican or Trump supporter.

On Nov. 10, Favorito sent his affidavit to Georgia Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger, recommending a full, by-hand ballot recount. The next day, his office announced it will conduct such an audit for the presidential race. Biden currently leads Trump by more than 14,000 votes in the state.

[….]

On Dominion Voting’s website, a page titled “Election 2020: Setting the Record Straight” says “claims about Dominion switching or deleting votes are 100% false.”

While noting that “no election is without isolated issues,” Dominion states: “Election safeguards – from testing and certification of voting systems, to canvassing and auditing – prevent malicious actors from tampering with vote counts and ensure that final vote tallies are accurate.”

But Favorito, who lives in the Atlanta area, said the Fulton County shift was so dramatic it seemed as if someone had “dumped” a huge batch of mail-in ballots for Biden into the system overnight.

“One candidate could not go up by 20,000 and the other do nothing — in Fulton County or any county in Georgia,” he asserted. “That’s just not going to happen.”

Added Favorito: “I think they’re going to find the root cause of the irregularity was something electronic, and I think it’s going to change the results substantially.”

He suggested it may have been the result of a software or equipment malfunction or possibly even vote-swapping “malware” infecting the system. Of greatest concern, however, is the possibility of intentional misconduct by an election official or worker…..

So, these seem to be reasonable issues and concerns. There are others as well, but I wanted to stay focused on the Software Issue. As I was doing this post, Pennsylvania’s Secretary of State, Kathy Boockvar, has said she will not order an audit of the votes. However, I am curious to see where the chips fall in Georgia — that may be a good “bellwether” state that if changed dramatically, may require other states using the software to recount/audit.

I will end with the indomitable California Rep., Devin Nunes, in his interview via NEWSMAX TV. He said on Friday that “conservatives should be wary about glitches and security issues with voting machines, given an apparent sea change in support from President Trump to Joe Biden since election eve.” Here is the interview:

UPDATE:

Social media is swarming around the claims that a current (or former, as his position has been scrubbed from the internet) vice-president with Dominion Voter Systems who previously admitted that it was possible for hackers to hack into their voting systems, allegedly, posted several anti-cop, anti-Trump and, frankly anti-American social media posts.

If you search the company’s profile Eric Coomer has since been removed from their page of directors.

Also, another question is being asked, does the CEO of dominion is an Antifa activist?

According to the Conservative Daily Podcast host Joe Oltmann, Dominion Voting Systems co-owner and inventor, Dr. Eric Coomer has made social media posts in the past directly connecting him to Antifa. Dominion Voting is based in Denver, Colorado. Coomer graduated with a Ph.D. in Nuclear Physics from the University of California, Berkeley, and began working in the elections industry in 2005 with a company called Sequoia Voting Systems as their Chief Software Architect. In 2008, after Sequoia was acquired by Dominion, Coomer took the position as the Vice-President of US Engineering, overseeing development in the Denver, Colorado office.

With so many questions swirling about Dominion Voting, there are clearly issues if the co-inventor and owner of that company might be connected to the Antifa (idea, myth, organization, way of life, terrorists…You choose).

According to Oltmann, Coomer’s now-deleted Facebook posts include his sharing songs tilted “Dead Cops,” “Dead Prez,” and “ACAB.” One post of particular interest is a long “statement” from Antifa he shared in June in response to President Trump declaring Antifa a terrorist organization……

(More at CONSERVATIVEUS)