However, the best article I read so far on the topic is over at MISES INSTITUTE:
“From 3000 BC the Mesopotamian states of Sumer, Akkad and Assyria, together with Ancient Egypt and Ebla[,] began using arithmetic, algebra and geometry.”
“Chinese mathematics made early contributions, including a place value system and the first use of negative numbers.”
“The Hindu-Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics…. Islamic mathematics, in turn, developed and expanded the mathematics known to these civilizations. Contemporaneous with but independent of these traditions were the mathematics developed by the Maya civilization of Mexico and Central America, where the concept of zero was given a standard symbol in Maya numerals.”
“[O]ur knowledge of Babylonian mathematics is derived from more than 400 clay tablets…. Written in Cuneiform script, tablets were inscribed whilst the clay was moist, and baked hard in an oven or by the heat of the sun. Some of these appear to be graded homework.”
“Sumerians wrote multiplication tables on clay tablets and dealt with geometrical exercises and division problems.”
“The most extensive Egyptian mathematical text is the Rhind papyrus, dated to c. 1650 BC but likely a copy of an older document…. It is an instruction manual for students in arithmetic and geometry. In addition to giving area formulas and methods for multiplication, division and working with unit fractions, it also contains evidence of other mathematical knowledge.”
“Greek mathematics was much more sophisticated than the mathematics that had been developed by earlier cultures…. Greek mathematicians, by contrast, used deductive reasoning. The Greeks used logic to derive conclusions from definitions and axioms, and used mathematical rigor to prove them.”
“In the 9th century, the Persian mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī wrote an important book on the Hindu–Arabic numerals and one on methods for solving equations … instrumental in spreading Indian mathematics and Indian numerals to the West. The word algorithm is derived from the Latinization of his name, Algoritmi, and the word algebra from the title of one of his works.”
Rather than representing “white supremacy,” the evolution of mathematics has been a globe-, race-, and culture-spanning collaboration of advancements, an ongoing development of more effective tools for anyone to use. And that history shows that all of those involved wanted to get the answers right, where having to show your work has been a millennia-old strategy for mathematics education……
MORE CRITICAL RACE THEORY, RACISM
HOT AIRhas some more hits via the racism of critical theory:
Over the weekend, the board took another hit in the pages of the San Francisco Chronicle when columnist Heather Knight relayed the story of a volunteer who wanted to become part of the board’s Parent Advisory Committee. Seth Brenzel would have been the only gay member of the group and the only man, but after discussing it for two solid hours the school board rejected him because he’s white:
All of the 10 current members are straight moms. Three are white. Three are Latina. Two are Black. One is Tongan. They all want the dad to join them.
The seven school board members talk for two hours about whether the dad brings enough diversity. Yes, he’d be the only man. And the only LGBTQ representative. But he’d be the fourth white person in a district where 15% of students are white…
The Alice B. Toklas LGBTQ Democratic Club on Friday slammed the board for its “misguided fumbling towards a goal of diversity.”
The person who was perhaps the most stunned was Seth Brenzel, the gay dad whose daughter is a fourth-grader at Glen Park Elementary. “At any moment, I expected a commissioner to address me,” he said, “because there I was.”
The board never asked Brenzel a single question. Instead he sat there, his face being broadcast on the zoom meeting, while the board decided he didn’t belong in the voluntary position because a white male ticked the wrong social justice boxes. This important conversation dragged on while about 500 parents were waiting to hear about school reopening plans.
The board’s focus on woke messaging over student well-being continues…
The board’s focus on woke decision making over addressing actual problems has become so absurd that even some Democrats see it as self-parody:
“We’ve become parodies of ourselves,’’ said Democratic strategist Brian Brokaw, who recounted Republican friends good-naturedly jabbing him as the developments became a running joke on the political scene. “It’s counterproductive in so many ways.”
San Francisco parents and their kids are paying a steep price for electing these woke ideologues to the school board.
Dateline Wednesday March 19, 2014 – Portland Oregon: Portland Public Schools teachers participated in a training session where a controversial new curriculum including “Critical Race Theory,” is explained. The curriculum is currently implemented in three charter schools at the K-5, middle school and high school level. The curriculum is expected to be rolled out to all schools in the Portland Public School System: thus the training.